The topic of discourse is not a new one. Many erudite scholars and professionals have dealt deeply on the subject matter. However, because it has always been a headache to the addicts themselves, the homes, society and government, thereby constituting a big nuisance to the society on daily basis, we found it imperative to revisit the hydra-headed subject.

Drug addiction or abuse is not peculiar to any country. It is a global phenomenon. In fact ,it was reliably reported that most of these deadly drugs found their ways into   this continent, nay Nigeria through the Western world. For instance, certain evidences suggest that the cultivation of cannabis and its use as a drug was introduced into Africa from India by the SUFI sect and Asian traders and travelers probably around 16th century. Also, there was the evidence that soldiers returning from world war II were responsible for increased incidence of cannabis  abuse in West Africa particularly, in Nigeria. By the name India hemp, one would find it difficult not to concur the entry of the weed from India.

We shall try to look at various types of harmful drugs and see how they are being abused by the youths, and adults, the negative effect or damage that these drugs are having on youths, homes society and national developments. We shall also lend our voice to some prescriptions to curb the menace of drug addiction or abuse.

DEFINITION: Drug abuse or addiction can be defined as….’as excessive or inappropriate use of (psycho-active) substance by a person, such use being considered or judged  to be illegal or immoral by the culture and resulting in harm to the person or society”. A drug user is addicted to the substance fond of using when his/her body starts to need it regularly and unable to stop using it.

TYPES OF DRUGS ABUSED-Depending on the country concerned or the environment, various drugs that are being abused are as follow 🙁 but not exhaustive)-benzene, glue and petrol, cocaine, heroin, cannabis (marijuana or Indian hemp),opium, china capsule etc.

In Nigeria, the common types are cocaine, cannabis sativa, or marijuana, cough syrup, China capsule and alabukun powder. We also have some high content spirits/alcohol for consumption which some addicts soak with marijuana, dry it drink the solution and also smoke the weed. Some also inhale the alabukun powder in a bid to get high.

Research has shown that there is the increase of abuse of benzene by inhalation among the Sudanese children. Also, Kenga, Somalia, Swaziland and Zambia show abuse of glue and petrol by inhalation. In Ethiopia, Kenga, Madagascar and Somalia, the substance KHAT is chewed to get them excessively excited or intoxicated.

In Nigeria, cannabis, cough syrup, glue and lizard dung are used by students. Their excuse for the use of cannabis is to improve their academic performances and enable them to socialize or active. The truck drivers, labourers, bus conductors, load carriers at the markets, civil servants, top politicians and technocrats make use of cannabis sativa to keep themselves agile while labourers put a defense that it give them extra energy to do their work. The same with top rated artisans and musicians who indulge in these drugs in order to perform actively on stage even though some of them always deny their involvement in drugs until tested positive like the athletes using it for the pitch events. In Nigeria , another dimension to it is mixing cough syrup with water or soft drink. They sip this unsuspectingly until they begin to misbehave or become hyper active. This is common among students


  1. Peer pressure-this may be from their mates either in school or environment
  2. An addicted close family friend may introduce it to his/her cousin.
  3. Wrong association or unholy gathering or parties.
  4. Get rich quickly syndrome-via introduction to unlawful or wrong kind of business as drug trafficking or being a baron across the globe.
  5. Lack of parental care or broken homes
  6. Joblessness or idleness.


  1. Production of maladjusted citizens
  2. Constant motor accidents on highways

3.Increased rate of armed robbery and kidnapping

  1. It destroys the natural immune system that guards people against certain infections.

5.Insanity-cases abound in our psychiatric hospitals and rehabilitation centre and on the streets and corners.

6 It gives bad image to the country concerned as barons and traffickers  ae easily caught and either jailed or killed depending on the point of arrest and the law of that land.


  1. Parents should be very close to their children.
  2. Parents should try to conduct  a background check on their children’s friends to know them intimately.

3 Schools should make use of professional counselors and psychologists to put students on the right path.

  1. Vocational skills should be introduced and intensified in schools to curb idleness.

5 Affluent in the society should impact the indigent ones to rid our society of miscreants.

6.Our motor parks, roadsides kiosks and public places should be rid of traders selling or hawking these harmful drugs. Constant raiding of these places should be intensified with sincerity of purpose and patriotism.

  1. The word of God should be exposed to the addicts as the fear of God is the beginning of wisdom.



The concept of ‘self’ is wide and diverse depending on one’s perception. To a layman, ‘self’’ could mean innate ability, while some other people may view it as the natural gift ordained by God. Some people might take it further on the semantic and view it as traits of arrogance or self aggrandizement. It is pertinent therefore, to look at this concept of ‘’self’’ deeply and juxtapose it with our contemporary world to know how it can be of help or otherwise to us as individuals and society at large. With this background about ‘self’ talk, we can conveniently ask the question-what is self? Your ‘self’ Is what people call ‘I’ or ‘Me’. Your ‘self’ is the centre of your personal world. Let’s look at the components:

BASIC COMPONENTS OF SELF: (1) THE NATURAL SELF- The first component is your natural self. Everybody has a fundamental inner nature or inner core of genetics, drives, instincts and human potentials-this is your animal nature (human beings are higher animals).Your animal nature is the same among living beings. For example: needs for food, shelter, physical safety, belonging and love. Some of these traits are unique to individuals to realize his good ‘self’. This is the natural self.

2.’ LEARNED SELF’- The next one is’ learned self’-This ‘self’ is a product of your social learning history.

This may be the way you have been groomed in your vocation to see or view yourself and skills in constraints of reality. Most of us have diverse ways of thinking about ourselves that prevent us from attaining our human potentials. Therefore, your learned self can be good or bad but usually admixture of both.

  1. CHOOSING’ SELF’: Another form of ‘self’ is choosing ‘self’. Your natural self represent your endowed gift, while your learned self reflects your reminiscences. Your ‘choosing self’ represents your capacity to make your life through your choices now and in the future. Thus, you are in the constant process of creating yourself. This provides you with the capacity to choose to throw away the ugly habits of thinking and’ self’ talk  of your ‘learned self’  that block your fulfilling the inner core of your nature or ‘natural self’. You can also use this principle to choose the aspect of your natural ‘self’ that you wish to develop. This will help particularly for the development of social interest and concern for others that goes beyond ‘self’ interest.
  2. SELF SUPPORT: Finally, is the self support. You can realize your human potential when you employ the self support. What it thus portends is that you can choose to either be your own best friend or your worst enemy as the saying goes. If you can win this conflict or make progress in it, you may likely lead a freer, happier and more fulfilled life. The cost however, for those in the other negative struggle side can be too high or costly. Those cost may include regular strife, alienation, escape into alcohol, hard drugs, promiscuity, violence and even suicide since they are unable to master their inner self cognitively. This weakness has brought down kingdoms/empires and rulers inconsequential. In a nutshell, avoid putting yourself or society down with the way you apply negative ‘self’ or ‘I’ talk. Avoid unnecessary rigid self perception. Accept your mistakes and enter the mood to put things rightly using the right word that will endear you and the society you live for positive development-By:IDOWU JULIUS